How to Design a Concrete Box Culvert

Concrete Box Culvert

One of mine!

Concrete box culverts are one of those items that very few engineers have to tackle regularly.

I will assume you have already performed the hydrology and therefore know the design flow and channel tailwater, as this is not specific to concrete box design and not part of the scope of this article.  Once you know those two values, you’re on your way:

STEP 1:  Pick a Size.  If you’re using precast, they only come in certain sizes so you should pick a size from manufacturer’s size lists in your area (or ASTM C1433, from which they are based).  Keep in mind you can have the boxes standing upright or lying flat, and you can put as many as you want side by side.  If you’re using cast-in-place you can, of course, choose any size you like, but as I will outline later, precast has the added advantage of allowing the engineer to offload alot of the dirty work to the supplier.

STEP 2:  The Hydraulics. If it’s a stream channel, use CulvertPro or HY-8 to find the headwater and inlet and outlet velocities.  Go back to the previous step and adjust sizes until the headwater and velocities meet the owner’s criteria.  If there is no criteria laid out for you, a good guide would be a headwater that’s below the top of culvert (top of road is another popular one) and local inlet and outlet velocities that are less than 2.5x the channel.

STEP 3:  Structural Design or Not.  For precast units, most specifiers make the Contractor do the structural design.  It’s not that they want to offload the work (although some probably do) but all the suppliers I know have more experience than me in doing the structural design, and offer it as a free service for buying the precast units from them.  It’s really just a matter of calculating the amount of steel in the cross-section because the concrete forms are the same.  A quick note on the drawings or specifications like “Structural Design of Precast Concrete Box Units shall be according to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, version xxx” and you’re done.  If you want to familarize yourself with the calculations, or check someone else’s, continue with step 4:

STEP 4:  The calculations.   They are based on the determination of the cross-sectional area of steel required (As), and you have several ways to tackle this:

  1. The software of choice is called BOXCAR, produced and distributed for free by the American Concrete Pipe Association.  (UPDATE: BOXCAR is $220 from the ACPA) I don’t know of any other.
  2. The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications are the bible.  The applicable section is 12.11, “Reinforced Concrete Cast-in-Place and Precast Box Culverts and Reinforced Cast-in-Place Arches.”  This section is only six pages long and will lay out the specifics for concrete box culverts, but the bulk of the calculations are based on section 5, “Concrete Structures.”  The structure will require analysis for live loads, dead loads, and earth loads as a beam supported on columns.  I can’t go through it here because it would be too long.
  3. Alot of the work is done for you in ASTM Specification C1577, “Standard Specification for Precast Reinforced Concrete Monolithic Box Sections for Culverts, Storm Drains, and Sewers Designed According to AASHTO LRFD.”  This specification identifies the areas of steel required in both directions, at various heights of cover, for all of the standard box sizes.  These are the “design tables” that every engineer looks for!

We also have a Design Example.

Please feel free to comment and share your thoughts.  Do you do anything differently?  Let us know in the comments section below.


About Bernie Roseke

Bernie Roseke, P.Eng., PMP, is the president of Roseke Engineering. As a bridge engineer and project manager, he manages projects ranging from small, local bridges to multi-million dollar projects. He is also the technical brains behind ProjectEngineer, the online project management software for engineers. He is a licensed professional engineer, certified project manager, and six sigma black belt. He lives in Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, with his wife and two kids.


  1. David Childs says:

    You mention the software BOXCAR is distributed free by the American Concrete Pipe Association. I have been on their website ( and they appear to be charging $220 for it. Am I looking at the correct website?

    • Bernie Roseke says:

      My apologies. I do believe you are right, that they charge for it. My copy was given to me by a member of the ACPA (concrete pipe supplier) for free so I shouldn’t have talked so fast. Depending on where you are, the concrete pipe/box suppliers in your area might be as liberal as they are here in handing it out…

  2. Hello,
    My PM ask me to design drainage for road crossing.below is the detail for the location.

    Depth of the river = 5meter
    Flowrate, Q= 333.33m3/s
    slope = no slope

    Can u please help me how i’m going to do the design calculation?

    • Bernie Roseke says:

      With that type of flow, you are well out of the range of concrete box culverts. You`re probably dealing with a 40 – 50 m long multi-span bridge. If you`re not sure where to start, I would suggest hiring a design consultant. Normally you would do a fairly involved hydrological assessment with this site.

      If you’re dealing only with the drainage, then it’s not really rocket science. Make sure all the water runs off into the river, and use the rational method and manning’s equation to figure out how big any swales and ditches should be.

  3. Thank you for your post. It’s very helpful.

    The link to your design example is no longer working. Can you update it please? Thanks!

    • Bernie Roseke says:

      Thanks Justin. That came from our website upgrade a few months ago. I have fixed it now. Glad you found the article useful.

  4. mukesh vijayvargiya says:

    hard rock is more than 6 mtr depth up to 6 mtr black coton soil and yellow soil what you sugest we make box culvart or abtment bridge

    • Bernie Roseke says:

      That depends on alot of factors, like length of culvert, number of piles on bridge, etc. You should figure out the size and length your box culvert will be, and the length and width of your bridge, and calculate which is cheaper.

      The piles on the bridge will probably go into the bedrock by a few feet (i.e. 7 – 8 m depth), and for the culvert, you would simply excavate about 2 feet below the culvert inverts and replace with gravel.

      Hope that helps.

  5. sir, I learn to design a box culvert with single barrel & twin barrel. please guide me. any reference book from where I can learn easily or solved example.
    thank you

    • Bernie Roseke says:

      There is currently only a design manual for concrete pipe, which is located here:

      You can design a box similar to a pipe with the appropriate adjustments, but the best thing to do is get a copy of ASTM C1577 (here’s the link). It’s got the area of steel requirement for different sizes of precast concrete box, as well as all the design data regarding wall thicknesses, steel cover requirements, etc. It’s for precast pipe though, so make sure you make the appropriate adjustments on that too.

  6. I am working with a client whom has an existing quad barrell 10×8 concrete box culvert in a creek bottom. My calculation indicate that the box culvert is sized correctly. Here is my problem. My client is building a 1000 acre lake that when full, the culvert will be totally submerged with at least 1.5 feet of head on top of this. I am recommending a removal and replacement of the drainage structure with a pre-cast bridge. My client is a local government with several board members whom all have different opinions. One strong board member states that the culvert should remain in place for the lake will “balance itself” out on both sides of the road. I understand and agree with the concept of this but do not recommend having a structure underwater that one cannot inspect or perform maintaince on. Any thoughts or comments on this particular situation?

    • Bernie Roseke says:

      I have dealt with a few underwater culverts on reservoirs and you are right, they are a pain to inspect. You have to hire a specialized diving inspection company (in my jurisdiction). That being said, if you’ve got to build a bridge 1.5 m higher than the culverts, that will be much more expensive, so that is the trade off. I don’t really have a fail safe answer for you because the culvert option can be done and work well for years, even though it doesn’t make engineers very happy when the infrastructure is so inaccessible. A quad barrel, 10×8 concrete box culvert might not necessarily be cheaper than a bridge though. In my jurisdiction it would be equal in price roughly to a 40 m long ( 3 or 4 span) precast bridge.

      Good luck.

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